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Spurs coach Andre Villas-Boas revealed after the game that the 30-year-old striker would be pulling out of England manager Roy Hodgson's squad for the prestige friendly match at Wembley.
Defoe sustained the injury in the first half of the game at The Hawthorns when he appeared to turn his left ankle in a bid to evade a challenge from West Brom's Shane Long. He was substituted shortly afterwards.
Villas-Boas said Defoe would be sent for a scan to determine the extent of the damage.
"I am extremely happy with the win, apart from the injury to Jermain Defoe," he said.
"He rolled his ankle. He will have to have a scan to reveal the extent of the injury. Hopefully there is not a lot of ligament damage. If there is, he could be out for two to three weeks.
"Has he been withdrawn from the England squad? Yes, he has."
Later Sunday, Manchester United midfielder Michael Carrick also pulled out of the squad with a hip injury, the Football Association confirmed.
Hodgson may also have to do without Defoe's fellow striker Daniel Sturridge, who injured his thigh after scoring in Liverpool's 2-2 draw at Manchester City later in the day.
"Daniel has a dead thigh and we will liaise with England," Liverpool manager Brendan Rodgers told BBC Sport. "I think he will struggle to make the friendly against Brazil."