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The Cosworth-powered car boasts KERS, the kinetic energy recovery system that was missing from last season's version as Marussia missed out on a precious top-ten finish in the constructors' standings.
"It took me a little while to get to sleep last night and now I can't wait to get going," Chilton, who is expected to team up with another novice in the shape of Brazilian Luiz Razia, told Sky Sports News before starting testing.
"We're really excited to see our performance out on track."
Marussia team principal John Booth believes the addition of KERS -- which is thought to be worth as much as 0.3 seconds per lap -- will vastly improve their chances of breaking into the top ten, after they missed out in 2012 by a narrow margin to Caterham.
"We embark on the first pre-season test of 2013 feeling very positive about our new car," he said.
"It was said many times during 2012 the lack of KERS was the defining factor in determining our championship position.
"KERS was a strategic omission from our package until now. We opted to place the emphasis on aerodynamics.
"Our trackside engineering team has spent the winter preparing for the addition of KERS to ensure we can hit the ground running with effect from this week.
"There is a great deal of optimism amongst the team for what lies ahead."
The 2013 seasons gets underway with the Australian Grand Prix in Melbourne on March 17.