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International sanctions on North Korea

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(Globalpost/GlobalPost)

North Korea's nuclear test is likely to result in the imposition of new or tightened sanctions by the UN Security Council, which had warned of "significant action" if Pyongyang went ahead.

The North's missile and nuclear programmes have attracted waves of sanctions over the years, including multilateral measures announced by the UN and penalties by individual countries.

Here is a roundup of measures currently in force:

UN SANCTIONS

The UN Security Council sanctions have been imposed and expanded over a series of four resolutions dating from a missile test in 2006. They cover the North's two previous nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009 and long-range rocket launches in 2009 and last year.

The sanctions currently commit all UN member nations to:

-- A total embargo on the supply, sale or transfer of arms and arms-related material to North Korea and the procurement from North Korea of the same.

-- A ban on imports and exports from and to North Korea of certain goods and technology listed by the UN.

-- A ban on exports of luxury goods.

-- Freezing the funds and economic resources of North Korean entities listed by the UN.

-- A travel ban preventing any access to individuals listed by the UN.

-- Cooperative action to prevent illicit trafficking in nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, ballistic missiles and their means of delivery, related materials and technology.

UNITED STATES

The United States has its own sanctions that involve seizing the assets of any individual or entity deemed to be assisting North Korean arms trafficking, money-laundering, counterfeiting, bulk cash smuggling and narcotics trafficking.

US citizens are banned from registering vessels in North Korea.

Imports of any goods, services, and technology from North Korea require a government licence.

EUROPEAN UNION

On top of the UN sanctions, the EU has its own list of items subject to an export ban, and of people and entities subject to a travel ban and asset freeze.

It also operates enhanced vigilance of the activities of EU financial institutions with banks domiciled in North Korea and reinforced cargo inspections.

SOUTH KOREA

Following what it said was the sinking of a South Korean warship by the North in March 2010, Seoul unilaterally banned all inter-Korean trade and South Korean investment in the North.

The only exception was a joint-venture industrial zone set up on the North Korean side of the border in 2004.

AUSTRALIA

Australia has targeted financial sanctions implemented by its central bank. They include restrictions on financial transactions involving entities or individuals associated with North Korea's nuclear and missile programmes.

It also operates a general ban on visas for North Korean nationals and bans port access to North Korea-flagged vessels.

JAPAN

Japan Tuesday began strengthening its unilateral sanctions. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said Tokyo would tighten immigration controls on the staff of a major pro-Pyongyang organisation in his country.

Sanctions imposed after nuclear tests in 2006 and 2009 include banning all exports to and imports from the North and barring its ships from Japanese ports.

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http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130212/international-sanctions-north-korea