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Below are key developments in Egypt since President Mohamed Morsi came to power a year ago, only to be confronted with security problems, political protests and an economic crisis.
-- 2012 --
- 30: Morsi, who won the presidential election with 51.7 percent of the vote, is sworn in, becoming Egypt's first civilian and Islamist ruler.
- 5: Gunmen kill 16 guards near Egypt's border with Israel before crossing into the Jewish state.
- 12: Morsi scraps a constitutional document which handed sweeping powers to the military and ousts Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi, former head of Egypt's army, who ruled the country as head of state after Hosni Mubarak's fall in February, 2011.
- 22: Morsi decrees sweeping new powers for himself.
- 30: Islamist-dominated constituent assembly adopts the draft constitution after a process boycotted by liberals and Christians.
- 8: Morsi annuls the decree giving himself sweeping powers, but maintains a controversial referendum on the constitution.
- 15 and 22: 64 percent of voters in the two-round referendum back the new constitution, in a vote marred by low turnout.
Egypt plunges into a deep political crisis, with demonstrations by supporters and opponents of Morsi turning into sometimes deadly clashes.
-- 2013 --
- 24: The outbreak of a new wave of violence between demonstrators and police on the eve of the the second anniversary of the uprising that overthrew Mubarak. Nearly 60 people die in a week.
- 5: Sectarian violence north of Cairo kills five people, including four Christians and one Muslim. New deadly clashes after funeral prayers for the Christians.
- 7: Morsi carries out a cabinet reshuffle which falls short of opposition demands.
- 16: Gunmen kidnap three Egyptian policemen and four soldiers in the Sinai peninsula, on the border with Israel and the Gaza Strip, which since the collapse of Mubarak's regime has seen multiple security incidents. They are freed on the 22.
- 2: Egypt's highest court invalidates the Islamist-dominated Senate, which was thrust into a legislative role when parliament was dissolved, along with a panel that drafted the constitution. The presidency says the Senate will maintain its powers until a new lower house is elected later this year.
- 4: A Cairo court sentences 43 Egyptian and foreign employees of several non-governmental organisations to jail sentences ranging from one to five years for working without legal status, causing outrage abroad.
- 15: Morsi announces the "definitive" severing of relations with war-torn Syria.
- 21: Tens of thousands of Islamists gather ahead of planned opposition protests against Morsi.
- 23: Defence Minister Abdel Fattah al-Sisi warns that the army will intervene if violence breaks out.