Key dates since Kenyan independence

Here is a compilation of key dates in Kenya since it won independence in 1963.

- December 12, 1963: Kenya, under British administration since 1895, gains independence following the Mau Mau insurrection that left at least 10,000 people dead, with some estimates far higher.

- October 10, 1978: Daniel arap Moi is proclaimed president following the death of Jomo Kenyatta, Kenya's first head of state, and begins a long, iron-fisted rule.

- June 9, 1982: Kenya is officially declared a one-party state.

- August 1, 1982: Air force pilots stage a coup, swiftly suppressed by Moi loyalists. Several hundred people, soldiers and civilians, were killed in the abortive overthrow and ensuing crackdown.

- February-July, 1990: Kenya is rocked by violent demonstrations, rioting, and arrests as the opposition pushes for a multi-party system, a goal achieved a year later.

- December 29, 1992: Moi is elected president in a multi-party poll, owing to deep divisions among opposition figures.

The vote is marred by violence between Moi's Kalenjin tribe and the Kikuyu tribe to which Kenyatta and much of the independence-era elite belonged. Hundreds are killed.

- August 7, 1998: An attack against the US embassy in Nairobi kills 213 people and wounds 5,000, the same day as an attack against the US embassy in neighbouring Tanzania.

- December 27, 1998: Mwai Kibaki wins a presidential election with 62.2 percent of the vote and an opposition coalition takes a large majority of seats in parliament.

- December 27, 2007: Kibaki is proclaimed winner again but his challenger Raila Odinga says the results were rigged. Clashes in the following weeks kill more than 1,100 people and force hundreds of thousands from their homes.

- February 28, 2008: An internationally-brokered power-sharing agreement is signed under which Kibaki keeps his job and Odinga becomes prime minister.

- August 27, 2010: A new constitution is adopted after it was overwhelmingly endorsed in a national referendum, introducing reforms aimed at averting any repeat of the violence that followed the 2007 polls.

- April 9, 2013: Uhuru Kenyatta, Jomo's son, is sworn in as president despite charges of crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court (ICC) over the 2007-2008 violence.

- September 21, 2013: Gunmen storm a Nairobi mall and dig in for a days-long siege, killing at least 67 people. The Al Qaeda-linked Shebab group claims the attack as retaliation for Kenya's military involvement in Somalia.