Eurosceptic and far-right parties have hit the campaign ground running for the 2014 European elections. Here's a snapshot of some of them:
Established in 1972, the National Front (FN) hopes to win as many as 20 seats in the European Parliament, up from a current three, as it rides a wave of anti-immigrant and anti-EU sentiment. Led by Marine Le Pen, the FN seeks France's exit from the 18-member eurozone, the renegotiation of EU treaties, and the re-imposition of national tariffs.
The FN is a member of the European Alliance for Freedom (EAF), whose manifesto states that "a concerted dissolution of the eurozone should be considered" allowing member states to revert to their national currencies. The FN has been spear-heading moves to create links in the European Parliament with other like-minded groupings.
The Party for Freedom (PVV), led by Geert Wilders, is the main ally of the FN, with which it sees eye-to-eye on the role of Islam in Europe and immigration. The PVV is also a member of the EAF and has four MEPs.
The Freedom Party of Austria (FPO) was founded in 1956, although it began as a centre-right liberal grouping. It took part in a number of coalition governments, including one with the country's socialists, before veering emphatically to the far right in the 1980s.
In the European Parliament, the FPO is a member of the EAF and advocates a ban on immigration from Muslim countries. In April, the party's top candidate for the European elections, Andreas Molzer, was forced to resign after making racist comments. He was seen as a key player in the push to bring together Europe's far-right groupings.
The Flemish party Vlaams Belang (VB) advocates the secession of Dutch-speaking Flanders from the rest of Belgium. The VB, which is an EAF member and has one MEP, considers the European Union a "quirk" and an "administrative monster".
The Northern League is a "regionalist" party seeking independence of regions north of the Po river, an area it calls 'Padania'. It claims to share "99 percent of the French National Front's ideas on Europe" and considers both the EU and the euro currency "political monsters". League MEPs have been close to those of Britain's UKIP but it is now ready to join the FN and its allies. It has a parliamentary delegation of nine and is a member of the EAF.
The United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) is led by flamboyant MEP Nigel Farage. While it is highly critical of European affairs, Farage has refused to join the broader EAF grouping and has resisted calls for a tie-up in a future parliament from France's National Front, saying the French movement is anti-Semitic and prejudiced.
The British National Party (BNP) is a eurosceptic and anti-immigration party with two MEPs. The FN has ruled out any formal alliance with the BNP.
The far right is dominated by two parties: the Popular Orthodox Rally (LAOS) and Golden Dawn. LAOS is both anti-immigration and eurosceptic, and its two MEPs have argued against Turkey's joining the EU. It has not ruled out an alliance with the FN.
Golden Dawn identifies clearly as neo-Nazi and calls for the defence of "the white race". The FN will not enter into an alliance with the party.
The Movement for a Better Hungary, known as Jobbik, is nationalist and eurosceptic. It has been accused of criminal attacks against Roma people, as well as anti-semitism. It has three MEPs -- however, one of them, Csanad Szegedi, dramatically left the party in 2012 after discovering he had Jewish family ancestry. While the FN has ruled out an alliance with Jobbik, one of three outgoing FN MEPs, Bruno Gollnisch, has developped close links with the Hungarian party and has joined it in creating another pan-European grouping, the European Alliance of National Movements (AENM).
The Danish People's Party (DF), is a strongly eurosceptic and anti-immigration party. The FN is keen to draw the party into its sphere of influence but the Danes have been reluctant to work with the French as a result of anti-semitic statements by FN founder Jean-Marie Le Pen (the father of current leader Marine Le Pen). The DF has one MEP.
The Swedish Democrats (SD) is a eurosceptic and nationalist party. It has no MEPs and is not interested in joining an FN-led grouping.
Attack (Ataka) is known for its aggressive nationalism and it is particularly militant against domestic ethnic and national minorities, including Roma. The party, which has two MEPs, has expressed interest in an alliance with the FN but it is widely seen as too extreme.
The Greater Romania Party (PRM) has an ultra-nationalist platform and calls for the country to re-acquire all neighbouring territories in which Romanian minorities live. It has three MEPs.
The Slovak National Party (SNS) is an ultra-nationalist party which targets Hungarian and Roma minorities. It is a member of the EAF and has one MEP.