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Vector-borne diseases infect 1 in 6 people worldwide. What's really astonishing is they're mostly preventable.
Today, on World Health Day, the World Health Organization (WHO) is drawing attention to one of the biggest public health threats facing people globally — vector-borne diseases.
As the name suggests, this group of diseases is caused by vectors — organisms that transmit parasites and bacteria from infected persons (or animals) to other people. Common examples include mosquitoes, flies, sandflies, ticks, bugs and freshwater snails.
Some of these diseases are household names, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, typhus, West Nile virus and Lyme disease. Others may be less well known, such as Chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis.
So why are they the focus of World Health Day?
Because they cause an untold amount of suffering, illness and death around the world. And those who survive are often left “permanently debilitated, disfigured, maimed, or blind,” says the WHO. Dr. Neeraj Mistry of the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases writes for CNN:
These diseases… are one of the major reasons for lower economic productivity among adults and decreased school attendance among kids in poor and even middle-income countries, and pose a primary obstacle to achieving many of the Millennium Development Goals, particularly for education, nutrition, and maternal and child health.
But here’s the good news — many vector-borne diseases can be prevented, controlled and eliminated through existing technologies, medicines and vector-control measures.
In honor of World Health Day 2014, here are some astonishing facts about vector-borne diseases.
1. They infect more than one billion people worldwide — including over 500 million children — and cause at least one million deaths annually.
As little as 11 cents can protect someone from river blindness for a year by ensuring the treatment reaches the communities in need. (Kate Holt/Sightsavers - Courtesy)
Vector-borne diseases account for 17 percent of all infectious disease suffered worldwide. And various environmental and social factors increase their potential to spread, including “changes in climate, ecology, land-use patterns, and the rapid and increased movement of people and goods,” says the WHO.
2. They thrive in conditions of poverty and inequality, particularly in developing countries.
A child faces the water in Cite Soleil, the biggest slum in Port-Au-Prince April 28, 2010. (Thony Belizaire via AFP/Getty Images)
Vector-borne diseases affect the least developed countries and the poorest segments of society within countries. Commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions, they’re also known as “neglected tropical diseases.” They thrive where people experience poor living conditions, including a lack of access to adequate housing, safe drinking water and sanitation systems, and exposure to areas of environmental degradation.
3. Malaria is the world’s most deadly vector-borne disease.
Malaria is the world's deadliest disease, with more than one million people, most of them young African children, dying from it every year. (Spencer Platt via Getty Images)
Malaria is a mosquito-borne illness that causes fever, chills and a flu-like illness. If left untreated, it can lead to severe illness and death. More than 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria in 97 countries. It kills over 600,000 people each year, most of them children under five. Around 90 percent of all malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria. “The best way to prevent malaria infection is through the regular use of long-lasting insecticidal nets, indoor spraying of homes with residual insecticides, and the use of WHO-recommended preventive therapies,” states the WHO.
4. More than 40 percent of the world's population is at risk of dengue.
Pakistani patients affected with dengue fever share beds in a ward at the hospital in Lahore on September 7, 2011. (Arif Ali via AFP/Getty Images)
Dengue is a “mosquito-borne infection that may cause lethal complications.” More than 2.5 billion people in 100 countries are at risk of dengue, which causes 100 new infections every year. Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, with a