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US authorities failed to inform all but one of the arrested foreign nationals of their right to seek consular assistance, violating the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.
On Wednesday night, the State of Texas executed Edgar Tamayo for the 1994 murder of a Houston police officer. Tamayo's case is special because he is a Mexican citizen, whose nation challenged his execution, just as it challenged US executions of its citizens in the past, most recently in 2008 and 2011.
Since the United States reinstated the death penalty in 1976, states have executed 28 other foreign nationals, often in the face of diplomatic calls for clemency.
Tamayo became the 29th on Wednesday after the Supreme Court refused to stay his execution. If Texas officials have their way, Edgardo Cubas, of Honduras, will become the 30th on May 29, 2014.
In all but one of these cases, according to the Death Penalty Information Center, US authorities failed to inform the arrested foreign nationals that they had the right to seek consular assistance under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. In 2004, the International Court of Justice found that the United States had violated the Vienna Convention in dozens of cases involving the arrest and prosecution of Mexican citizens.
More than 140 foreign nationals remains on death row around the United States.
Here are the 29 men, where they were born, and the crimes for which they were put to death.
Eleuteria Armendariz, grandmother of Jose Ernesto Medellin, shows a newspaper cutting with a note and picture of her grandson in Nuevo Laredo (RAUL LLAMAS/AFP/Getty Images)
Humberto Leal — July 7, 2011 in Texas — Rape and murder of Adria Saucedo, 16, in May 1994
Jose Ernesto Medellin — Aug. 5, 2008 in Texas — Rape and murder of Jennifer Ertman, 14, and Elizabeth Peña, 16 in June 1993
Angel Maturino Resendiz — June 27, 2006 in Texas — Serial murderer known as the “Railroad Killer”; 14 victims
Javier Suarez Medina — Aug. 14, 2002 in Texas — Murder of undercover police officer during robbery in December 1998
Miguel Angel Flores — Nov. 9, 2000 in Texas — Kidnapping, rape, and murder in 1989
Mario Murphy — Sept. 18, 1997 in Virginia — Murder-for-hire of a US Navy petty officer in 1991
Irineo Tristan Montoya — June 18, 1997 in Texas — Murder and robbery of Kohn Kilheffer, in 1986
Ramon Montoya Facundo — March 25, 1993 in Texas — Murder of John Pasco, a Dallas police officer in January 1983
Manuel Valle — Sept. 28, 2011 in Florida — Murder of Louis Pena, a police officer, in 1978
Yosvanis Valle — Nov. 20, 2009 in Texas — Robbery and murder of Houston drug dealer Jose Junco in 1999
Rigoberto Sanchez Velasco — Oct. 2, 2002 in Florida — Rape and murder of Katixa Ecenarro, 11, in 1986
Pedro Medina — March 25, 1997 in Florida — Murder of Dorothy James, his neighbor and an elementary school teacher, in April 1982
Mirna Aceituno with the body of her late son, Heliberto Chi Aceituno, before his burial in San Pedro Sula (AFP/Getty Images)
Heliberto Chi Aceituno — Aug. 7, 2008 in Texas — Murder and robbery of his former boss, Armand Paliotta
Jose Villafuerte — April 22, 1998 in Arizona — Murder of Ameila Schoville, 47, in February 1983
German national Karl LaGrand watches his clemency hearing at an Arizona prison in Florence (AFP/Getty Images)
Walter LaGrand — Feb. 24, 1999 in Arizona
Karl LaGrand — March 3, 1999 in Arizona
The LaGrand brothers were convicted of murder during the commission of an armed bank robbery in January 1982.
Edward Nathaniel Bell — Feb. 29, 2009 in Virginia — Murder of Sgt. Ricky Timbrook, a police officer, in October 1999
Hung Thanh Le — March 23, 2004 in Oklahoma — Murder of Hai Hong Nguyen, a fellow Vietnamese refugee, in 1992
Tuan Anh Nguyen — Dec. 10, 1998 in Oklahoma — Murder of his wife, Donna Nguyen, 20, and two children in her care, Amanda White, 3, and Joseph White, 6, in 1982
Virginia State Department of Corrections spokesman Larry Traylor informs the news media that Pakistani Mir Aimal Kasi was executed inside the Greensville Correctional Center on Nov. 14, 2002 (AFP/Getty Images)
Mir Aimal Kasi — Nov. 14, 2002 in Virginia — Murder of two CIA employees during a 1993 shooting outside agency headquarters
Sahib al-Mosawi — Dec. 6, 2001 in Oklahoma — Murder of his wife and her uncle in 1992
Sebastian Bridges — April 21, 2001 in Nevada — Murder of estranged wife’s lover, Hunter Blatchford in 1997
An anti-death penalty protester holds a photo of condemned killer Joseph Stanley Faulder outside the Texas Department of Criminal Justice Walls Unit in Huntsville, Texas on June, 17 1999 (AFP/Getty Images)
Joseph Stanley Faulder - June 17, 1999 in Texas — Murder of Inez Phillips, 75, during a robbery in 1975
Alvar Calambro — April 5, 1999 in Nevada — Murders of Peggy Crawford and Keith Christopher during the robbery of a U-Haul business in January 1994
A painting by former Buddhist monk Jaturun 'Jay' Siripongs entitled 'Self-Portrait' in the exhibit Visions of Life: Art Out of Death Row (AFP/Getty Images)
Jaturun Siripongs — Feb. 9, 1999 in California — Murder of Packovan Wattanaporn and Quach Nguyen during robbery of Pantai market in Garden Grove, Calif. in 1981
Angel Breard — April 14, 1998 in Virginia — Murder and attempted rape in 1992
Carlos Santana — March 23, 1993 in Texas — Murder during robbery of a Purolator Armored Inc. van in 1981
Leslie Lowenfield — April 13, 1988 in Louisiana — Murder of five people, his estranged girlfriend, Sheila Thomas, 27, as well as Thomas’ mother, stepfather, daughter, and the father of her daughter, 1982