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A gold miner displays a gold nugget in Mongbwalu, Congo. A United Nations report details how gold smuggling benefits warlords and foreign businessmen but leave Congolese miners impoverished. Gold and other mineral deposits, which are numerous in the volatile north-east of the country, have become a catalyst to much of the conflict in Congo. Numerous militias and warlords have vied for control of the mineral rich eastern Congo for decades, creating instability and continued bloodshed.